Growing with Biochar
USDA SARE grant project

KAW Valley Biochar
Lawrence, Kansas

David Yarrow
checks chimney for smokeless gas flare
55-gallon TLUD barrel burner
Growing with Biochar
Soil Carbon Sequestration
Teach & Test

with Research & Demonstration Plots
Lawrence, Kansas, May 2013

Growing with Biochar assists growers to make, buy, prepare, use, and test biochar in soils on their farms. Our 2013 priority is to set up research & demonstation test plots on farms in the Lawrence, Kansas foodshed (yellow box, upper right) to showcase benefits of sustainable, carbon-smart farming to growers and the public.

The second priority of Growing with Biochar is to create events and literature to spread awareness of biochar and carbon-smart farming. The project will publish various pamphlets, papers, reports, instructions, videos, and webpages. This includes a Grower Guide to Carbon-Smart Farming—practical instructions to produce and use biochar on a farm or homestead. Our special concern is to introduce and integrate carbon-smart into food production agriculture.

In the fall, Growing with Biochar will sponsor on-farm field days and open house events to show off test plots, teach about carbon-smart farming and food. Late in the fall, two 1-day training sessions will teach growers to implement carbon-smart methods with their own farm soils and crops.

“Lots of scientists are doing serious scientific research into biochar. Even at USDA, several PhD soil scientists now research biochar,” said coordinator David Yarrow. "That’s not what we’re trying to do. Our focus is outreach and education to growers to make carbon-smart, probiotic methods available and understandable to growers. We advocate and demonstrate the new methods and materials of a 21st Century agriculture.”
Taking Soil Samples
6 holes 6 inches deep

In November 2012, Yarrow wrote a proposal to USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) for a one-year, farmer-rancher grant. The proposal was approved in March 2013. This spring, soil samples were taken. Biochar is being spread on test plots.

Each participant farmer defines a research issue, designates a field plot and test crop. Project staff set up test plots, gather experimental data and observations by standard protocol. Test plots provide a visual demonstration for photo documentation, field days and training sessions.

Each test plot is a minimum three beds: one control with only fertilizer; second gets fertilizer plus raw, dry biochar; third test bed gets fertilizer and inoculated biochar, plus sea minerals and other probiotic treatments. More test plots can be created to test different kinds of biochar, additional amendments, or other treatments. For example, the first test plot at Hoyland Farm is testing home-made cedar tree char with horticultural charcoal from a nursery supply. And at Lulu's Garden, next to inoculated BioChar'ge plus SEA-90 is a 4th bed with PermaMatrix™, a new high-end blended product designed for hydroseeding.
Spreading Inoculated BioChar'ge
on Subterra test bed #3

Last winter, Yarrow taught participants how to make their own char in a 55-gallon TLUD, and built burners for several farms. For under $100, anyone can turn a barrel and stovepipe into a TLUD to make 20-gallon biochar batches from wood chips, brush or straw—enough for test plots.

In February, Yarrow made cedar tree biochar. “Juniperus virginiana is a pest in prairies and pastures, so we’ll test it as char and soil amendment. Cedar's rich resins and oils may yield a bonus as biofuels and microbial stimulant.”

Yarrow sees ”a wildfire of interest about biochar spreading among growers” in recent years. “In most situations, farmers have heard of it, but don’t have a clue how to start using it on their own farm,” he said. The pivotal point, for Yarrow, is that growers learn how to take raw charcoal and apply it to soil so small amounts provide maximum results.

“I demonstrate how to prepare biochar to use in soil to get optimum response. We want to document this, and teach this method to farmers,” Yarrow said.

“We know from studies in the Amazon, charcoal can take two years to become fully effective in soil. We also know specific steps to prepare raw biochar so, instead of tons per acre, just a few hundred pounds per acre will achieve optimum effects on plants. We don't just dump char in soil. We prepare it for optimum use in soil.”

Micropores in Biochar
micro-sponge is huge internal surface area

Besides lack of guidance, another barrier keeping biochar out of mainstream farming is lack of supply. There is no biochar industry making large amounts—not yet. So, farmers aren’t able to purchase large quantities to use on farms.

But that is changing quickly now. In the last year, a dozen new companies announced equipment to make large volumes of biochar, and began to market their biochar. A huge variety of technologies and feedstocks are used to produce an assorment of biochars. In 2013, International Biochar Initiative (IBI) completed three years of discussions of Standards to certify biochar products and production systems. Other organization and infrastructures are ready to support stable, steady growth for this infant industry.

BioChar'ge Delivery
Tom Buller & Phil Blom
carefully unload half-ton bags

Fortunately for Kansas, in nearby Columbia, Missouri, Phil Blom is making biochar from oak scraps to sell to growers as "TerraChar." Phil also distributes SCD Probiotics products, including BioAg inoculant for biochar, made in nearby Kansas City. Phil invested considerable initative to build a biochar reactor to produce hundreds of tons a year. With a working prototype, Phil is learning to market biochar to Midwest growers.

First week of May, four tons of TerraChar were delivered. SARE grant farmer Tom Buller unloaded eight half-ton, cubic-yard tote bags off Phil's trailer. By late afternoon, all but one bag was sold. The SARE grant project bought two bags for test plots. Local growers are now assured an abundant source of quality char.

Beyond SARE grant on-farm test plots, a team has started a distribution business to make biochar, sea minerals and other soil products available to regional growers. Initially, they will use the name "BioCharge Kansas" to distribute biochar, sea minerals and inoculants. By the 2014 growing season, they expect to have a full line of soil products for 21st Century food production.

“We expect next year a lot more farmers will want biochar for their land. Our pilot project will produce larger quantities of char than we do now, and spread it on more farmland for the 2014 growing season.”

RESOURCES

Vajra Farm
www.vajrafarm.com

International Biochar Initiative
www.biochar-international.org
SARE grant with 8 Kansas farms
SARE Biochar proposal
Growing with Biochar
Biochar on the Farm
KAW Valley Biochar

Biochar in Soil
The 4 M's to Prepare Biochar
Using Biochar in Soil
World Class Soils

Carbon-Smart Farming
www.dyarrow.org/CarbonSmart
Let Freedom Ring!

"Cool-Food" Labeling
www.dyarrow.org/cool-food

TLUD Fabrication & Operation
www.dyarrow.org/TLUD
www.dyarrow.org/venturi

Woodgas Power & Biofuels
Woodgas Wizard Wayne Keith
Woodgas History

Nutrient-Dense Food
Nutrient-Dense Introduction
Nutrient-Dense Campaign
Nutrient-Dense at SaratogaApple

Sea Minerals
Sea Energy in Agriculture
Nutrient-Dense Milk
SeaAgri: SEA-90 distributor

BIOCHAR:

the story
the source
the miracle
the promise
Research & Demonstration
Biochar Test Plots
Vajra Farm
Hoyland Farm
Greenman
Subterra
Lulu's Garden
Common Ground
Moon on the Meadow
Buller Family Farm
Give Growers Guidance
Biochar
on the Farm
SARE-funded project

Lawrence, Kansas

Let Freedom Ring!
Geology into Biology

Carbon, Minerals & Microbes
Venturi Vortex
TLUD Biochar Burner

optimum combustion
Lettuce Seedling
Trials with Biochars

Saratoga Apple, Summer 2010
The 4 M's
to
Prepare Biochar
for use in soil

Carbon-Smart
Farming

grow food in changing climate
Cool-Food
Eating Our Way
to a Sustainable Future

answers to climate calamity
Nutrient Dense
Farming
at Saratoga Apple
PHI
Divine Ratio
Alice in mathematical wonderland
Water Angel
in India


KAW Valley Biochar     Growing with Biochar: a USDA SARE grant project     www.GrowingwithBiochar.org     6/21/2013